- Brigham and Women’s Hospital, USA
- Title:How Self-Reported Hot Flashes May Relate to Affect, Cognitive Performance and Sleep
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Purpose: To explain the controversy about whether midlife women who self-report hot flasheshave relatively increased affective symptoms, poor cognitive performance or worse sleep.
Methods: Retrospective data from 88 women seeking relief from bothersome day and night hot flashes were submitted to mixed linear regression modeling to find if estimated hot flashes, as measured by Women’s Health Questionnaire (WHQ) items or diary-documented hot flashes recorded daily were associated with each other or with affective, cognitive or sleep measures.
Results: Subjects averaged 6.3 daytime diary-documented hot flashes and 2.4 nighttime diary- documented hot flashes per 24 h. Confounder-controlled, diary-documented hot flashes but not estimated hot flashes were associated with increased Leeds anxiety scores (F = 4.9; t = 2.8; p =0.01) and Leeds depression scores (3.4; 2.5; 0.02), decreased Stroop Color–Word test performance (9.4; 3.5; 0.001), increased subjective sleep disturbance (effect size = 0.83) and increased objective sleep disturbance(effect size = 0.35). Hot flash effects were small to moderate in size. Univariate but not multivariate analyses revealed that all hot flash measures were associated with all affect measures. Different measures of hot flashes associated differently with affect, cognition and sleep. Only nighttime diary-documented hot flashes consistently correlated with any affect measures in multivariate analyses.
Conclusions: Reported inconsistencies in menopause study outcomes may be due to the use of differing measures for hot flashes, affect, cognition and sleep. This problem impedes forging a consensus on whether hot flashes correlate with neuropsychological symptoms.
Quentin Regestein is a clinician-researcher interested in menopause and transcranial brain stimulation. He currently develops applications to improve US health care delivery.Joan Friebely’s research has focused on menopause’s psychological effects and second-hand smoking.Isaac Schiff is a clinician-researcher who has done prize-winning menopausal research. He co-founded founded the North American Menopause Society and is Editor-in-Chief of the journal Menopause.
- Central South University, China
- Title:Prognostic Factors for the 6-Year Cognitive Impairment in China: Results From the CLHLS Cohort
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Background: There is merely study from China using nationally representative longitudinal dataset to assess the prognostic factors for the progression of normal cognition to cognitive impairment (CI).
Aim: This study will identify the best subset of 6-year CI predictors.
Design and setting: 11,781 participants 60 years old or older from Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS, 2008-09 wave) were included at baseline for six-year follow-up. Of these individuals, 4,727 participants were eligible for final analysis. Univariate and binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify the significantly related predictors for incident CI. Subsequently, nomogram models were established to rank and find prognostic factors.
Results: A overall prevalence of 6-year CI was 17.4%, and 60-70, 70-80, 81-90, 91- age groups were 5.4%, 9.5%, 26.1% and 50.3%, respectively. In general, the activities of daily living and baseline cognition were valuable prognostic factors to predict CI, with the exception of unmodifiable factors. Age subgroup analysis showed that, among 60-70 old age group, cardiovascular diseases were valuable prognostic factors; among over 70-year old age groups, baseline cognitive function could be a valuable addition to CI prediction models.
Conclusions: Brief baseline cognitive testing and functional status were important valuable prognostic factors for CI.
Hui.Feng, PhD, Professor. The director of Health Care Research Center, Central South University and the director of Xiangya-Oceanwide Health Management Research Institute of Central South university. As a visiting scholar, Professor Feng was used to go to the Yale University, the University of Michigan, Flinders University and the Chinese University of Hong Kong. For five decades, Professor Feng has hosted more than 50 projects, among which more than 10 are national or international projects, and published more than 30 academic papers. Professor Feng specializes in the geriatric care and geriatric chronic diseases.
- University of Illinois at Chicago, USA
- Title: Predicting Autism Spectrum Disorder Using Domain-Adaptive Cross-Site Evaluation
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The advances in neuroimaging methods reveal that resting-state functional fMRI (rs-fMRI) connectivity measures can be potential diagnostic biomarkers for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent data sharing projects help us replicating the robustness of these biomarkers in different acquisition conditions or preprocessing steps across larger numbers of individuals or sites. It is necessary to validate the previous results by using data from multiple sites by diminishing the site variations. We investigated partial least square regression (PLS), a domain adaptive method to adjust the effects of multicenter acquisition. A sparse Multivariate Pattern Analysis (MVVPA) framework in a leave one site out cross validation (LOSOCV) setting has been proposed to discriminate ASD from healthy controls using data from six sites in the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE). Our results showed that two or more informative connections are Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex, Somatosensory Association Cortex, Primary Auditory Cortex, Inferior Temporal Gyrus and Temporopolar area. These interrupted regions are involved in executive function, speech, visual perception, sense and language which are associated with ASD. Our findings may support early clinical diagnosis or risk determination by identifying neurobiological markers to distinguish between ASD and healthy controls.
Dr. Bhaumik is a research assistant professor at Biostatistical Research Center, in the Department of Psychiatry. Her research focuses on Longitudinal Data Analysis, Multivariate Statistical analysis, Graph Theory and applications of Machine Learning Algorithms to Neuroscience and other fields.
- University of California, Canada
- Title:Integrated Stress Response Inhibitor Reverses Sex-Dependent Behavioral and Cell-Specific Deficits After Mild Repetitive Head Trauma
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Mild repetitive traumatic brain injury (rTBI) induces chronic behavioral and cognitive alterations and increases the risk for dementia. Currently there are no therapeutic strategies to prevent or mitigate chronic deficits associated with rTBI. We previously developed an animal model of rTBI that recapitulates some of the cognitive and behavioral deficits observed in humans. Here we report that rTBI results in an increase in risk-taking behavior in male but not female mice. This behavioral phenotype is associated with cell-specific synaptic alterations in the type A subtype of layer V pyramidal neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Strikingly, by briefly treating animals’ weeks after injuries with ISRIB, a selective inhibitor of the integrated stress response (ISR), we permanently reverse the increased risk-taking behavioral phenotype and restore cell-specific synaptic function in the affected mice. Our results indicate that targeting the ISR even at late time points after injury can permanently reverse behavioral changes. As such, pharmacological inhibition of the ISR emerges as a promising avenue to combat rTBI-induced behavioral dysfunction.
Susanna Rosi is a Professor in the Departments of Physical Therapy Rehabilitation Science and Neurological Surgery and the Director of Neurocognitive Research in the Brain and Spinal Injury Center. She is a member of the UCSF Weill Institute for Neurosciences, Kavli Institute for Fundamental Neuroscience, Hellen Diller Cancer Center, Neuroscience Graduate Program, Biomedical Science Graduate Program. Originally from Tuscany, Dr. Rosi earned her undergraduate degree and PhD in Biology from the University of Florence, Italy. She trained in the Neural System Memory and Aging center at the University of Arizona before becoming a Faculty Member of UCSF. Her research is focused on understanding the mechanisms responsible for the cognitive dysfunctions observed after brain injury. Her final goal is to identify diagnostic tools for treatment and prevention. She demonstrated the key role that neuroinflammation plays in the development of cognitive deficits. Most notably, she identified therapeutic strategies able to both prevent and restore lost cognition. She received the Bridging the Gap Award from the California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences, the Innovation Award from the Weill Institute for Neurosciences. She serves as PI on NIH (NIA, NINDS and NCI) funded grants, a NASA grant and she also serves as a standing member of the Molecular Neurogenetic study section at the National Institutes of Health and Associate Editor for the Journal of neuroinflammation.
- Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel
- Title:Imaging the Dynamics of Mammalian Neocortical Population Activity In-Vivo
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Neural computations underlying sensory perception, cognition and motor control are performed by populations of neurons at different anatomical and temporal scales. Few techniques are currently available for exploring dynamics of local and large range populations. Voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDI) reveals neural population activity in areas ranging from a few tens of microns to a couple of centimeters, or two areas up to ~10 cm apart. VSDI provides a sub-millisecond temporal resolution, and a spatial resolution of about 50 μm. The dye signal emphasizes subthreshold synaptic potentials and coherent spiking. In our Laboratory VSDI has been applied in tissue culture, brain slices invertebrate ganglia and in the mouse, rat, gerbil, ferret, tree shrew, cat and owl, squirrel and macaque monkey cortices, in order to explore lateral spread of retinotopic or somatotopic activation, the dynamic spatiotemporal pattern resulting from sensory activation, including the somatosensory, olfactory, auditory, and visual modalities, as well as motor preparation, and the properties of spontaneously- occurring population activity and the bilateral interactions between ongoing activity and evoked activity. Here we focus on VSDI in-vivo and review results
and novel concepts obtained mostly in the visual system from the research in our laboratory.
- Gannan Medical University, China
- Title:Hyperhomocysteinemia and Risk of Incident Cognitive Outcomes: An Updated Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies
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OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to comprehensively assess the dose-response relationship between blood
homocysteine levels and risk of all cause, Alzheimer and vascular dementia, as well as cognitive impairment
without dementia (CIND).
METHOD: We searched for all related prospective cohort studies reporting homocysteine as an exposure from
patients with cognitive disorders as a result in the PubMed and EMBASE databases up to June 18, 2018. Pooled
relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were extracted. The dose-response meta- analyses were conducted to assess potential linear and non-linear dose-response relations. Summary RRs and 95%
CIs were calculated using a random- or fixed-effects model. RESULTS: Twenty-eight prospective cohort studies were eligible in this meta-analysis. During average follow-up
periods ranging from 2.7 to 35 years there were 2,557 cases (1,035 all-cause dementia, 530 Alzheimer’s disease, 92
vascular dementia and > 900 CIND) among 28,257 participants. There was a clear linear dose-response
relationship between blood homocysteine concentration and risk of Alzheimer-type dementia (P < 0.05 for non-
linearity). The pooled RR of Alzheimer-type dementia was 1.15 (95% CI: 1.04 to 1.26; I(2) = 56.6%, n = 5) for
every 5 mumol/L increase in blood homocysteine. Sensitivity analysis showed similar results, and there was no
clear evidence of publication bias with Begg’s and Egger’s tests for Alzheimer dementia (P = 0.806, 0.084, respectively), strengthening the linear relationship between blood homocysteine levels and risk of Alzheimer
dementia. Due to the presence of publication bias and low statistical power, elevated levels of blood homocysteine
were not appreciably associated with risk of all-cause, vascular dementia and CIND.
CONCLUSIONS: Every 5 mumol/L increase in blood homocysteine is linearly associated with a 15% increase in
relative risk of Alzheimer-type dementia. This meta-analysis provides further evidence that a higher concentration
of blood homocysteine is associated with a higher risk of Alzheimer-type dementia.
Dr. Futao Zhou received his PhD degree from Sichuan University, China, in 2011. Currently, he is employed by Gannan
Medical University, JianXi province, China. His interests include molecular mechanisms and pharmacological therapies of neurodegenerative diseases, in particular, tau protein hyperphosphorylation and AD related molecules investigations.
- National Autonomous University, USA
- Title:Environmental Pollution by Ozone, Chronic Oxidative Stress State, Inflammatory Response and Alzheimer's Disease.
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Environmental pollution is associated with different types of chronic-degenerative diseases, as well as with an increase in hospital consultations and admissions that occur in CDMX on the days of high pollution. Ozone (O3) is the main photochemical air pollutant. It is widely demonstrated that repeated exposure of individuals at low doses of O3 induces a chronic state of oxidative stress, which is associated with impaired immune response, leading to the loss of regulation of the inflammatory response in distinct brain regions, which thus contributes to the development and progress of different chronic neurodegenerative diseases. In our laboratory we have developed a murine model that allows us to study the relationship between exposure to low doses of ozone (equivalent to one day of highly contaminated), and the development of the neurodegenerative process in rat’s hippocampus similar to what happens
in Alzheimer’s disease. With this model we have shown that repeated exposure to ozone, causes a progressive neurodegeneration process in the hippocampus of rats exposed to O3 depending on the exposure time, producing an increase in the expression of
beta-amyloid 1 -42, which is pathognomonic for Alzheimer’s disease. This neurodegenerative process is accompanied by neuronal death, inhibition of brain repair mechanisms, mitochondrial damage with ATP deficit, phenotypic changes in the microglia and astrocytosis, alterations of the signaling pathways for the inflammatory response, in which, T cells of the immune system, have a very important role in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
In conclusion, repeated exposure to ozone pollution causes a chronic state of oxidative stress. This loss of regulation
of the redox balance leads to a loss of regulation of the inflammatory response. Which produces a vicious circle that
causes the progress of the neurodegenerative process while maintaining the deterioration and progress of the disease
Dr. Selva Rivas-Arancibia M.D. Ph.D., is Professor of Physiology at the Faculty of Medicine of the National Autonomous University of Mexico. Head the Laboratory of Oxidative Stress and Brain Plasticity. Member of the National Research System. She has a Master ́s Degree and Doctor ́s Degree in Biomedical Sciences at the National Autonomous University of Mexico. Dr. Rivas-Arancibia has 72 publications and 1080 citations She is author of 10 book chapters and has participated in 190 national and international meetings about the topic.
- Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, USA
- Title:Walking Throughout your Day Keeps Depression (and a Host of other Health Problems) Away
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The physical health benefits of exercise are well known and well documented, but the psychosocial benefits of activity may not be as apparent. Holistic wellness includes both physical and psychological factors, and exercises been found to provide many psychosocial benefits as well as physical benefits. Aerobic exercise reduces anxiety and improves mood and fatigue. One randomized controlled study discovered that exercise over a period of 10 days was nearly as effective as antidepressants for the treatment of depression. Exercises also been reported to elevate productivity and decrease work and school absences. Additional research has determined that exercise has a positive effect as a treatment for anxiety and depression, and exercise can help to improve social relationships. Exercise also influences cognitive functioning, and a population- based study discovered that physical activity and computer use were associated with a decreased risk of mild cognitive impairment. Additionally, a meta- analysis determined that physical activity may slow cognitive decline, mainly through modification of cerebrovascular risk, and also determined that exercise provides a neuroprotective effect in reducing the risk of dementia in later life.
Edward R. Laskowski, M.D. is Co-director of Mayo Clinic Sports Medicine and a Professor in the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Nationally and internationally recognized for his expertise in fitness and sports medicine, Dr. Laskowski studies and promotes best practices for general fitness, injury prevention and injury rehabilitation, strength training, and stability training. Collectively, Dr. Laskowski’s work has produced several hundred publication credits, including scientific papers, abstracts, books, book reviews, book chapters, and popular media and multimedia. His articles have appeared in The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, The Washington Post, The Chicago Tribune, Golf Digest, Prevention, Time, Men’s Health, Esquire, and GQ Magazine, and he has appeared on the NBC Nightly News, ABC World News Now, and Good Morning America as a trusted voice in sports medicine and fitness. Dr. Laskowski has also been elected to the “Teacher of the Year Hall of Fame” at Mayo Clinic Rochester, and was Co-Director of the Course of the Year in the Mayo Graduate School of Medicine. He has provided medical services at events ranging from high school football to the Winter Olympics and the Chicago Marathon. From 2006 to 2010, he served as a member of the President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports under Presidents Bush and Obama. His goal is to provide accurate, reliable exercise recommendations that people can incorporate into their lives.
- Macquarie University, Australia
- Title:Applying Online Interventions to Improve Retirement Planning Goal Setting and Goal Specificity
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One of the best predictors of retirement adjustment is how well people plan before and during retirement. Planning by way of resource accumulation in the areas of wealth, health, social, cognition, emotions and motivation is one of the best predictors. This presentation will focus on a program of research experimenting with online retirement planning interventions informed by Time perspective and holistic models of retirement planning. It helps to answer what can be done to better engage people in planning ahead to promote a better retirement experience including improved cognitive health.
Jo is an Australian based Psychologist specialising in retirement planning. Her program of research focuses on developing solutions to improve pre and post retirement planning along with identifying predictors of retirement adjustment. You will find her work published in the Medical Journal of Australia, American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, Women and Aging, Frontiers in Psychology, Psychology and Aging, Ageing and Society and Leisure Sciences.
- The Johns Hopkins University, USA
- Title: Imaging Neurovascular Abnormalities in Neurodegenerative Diseases
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Energy metabolism is crucial for maintenance of normal brain functions. As the supply of adequate oxygen and energy substrates for local metabolic demands is controlled by blood vessels in the brain, neurovascular abnormalities may contribute to the neuropathology and functional deficits in brain diseases. Here, I will discuss our work on the investigation of microvascular and metabolic abnormalities in neurodegenerative diseases measured by advanced MRI technologies developed at ultra-high magnetic field.
Dr. Hua is an Associate Professor in the F.M. Kirby Research Center for Functional Brain Imaging at Kennedy Krieger Institute, and the Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology at Johns Hopkins University. Dr. Hua’s research
has centered on the development of novel MRI technologies for in vivo functional and physiological imaging in the brain, and the application of such methods for studies in healthy and diseased brains. These include the development of human and animal MRI methods to measure functional brain activities, cerebral perfusion and oxygen metabolism at high (3 Tesla) and ultra-high (7 Tesla and above) magnetic fields. He is particularly interested in novel MRI approaches to image small blood and lymphatic vessels in the brain. Collaborating with clinical investigators, these techniques have been applied 1) to detect functional, vascular and metabolic abnormalities in the brain in neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntingdon’s disease (HD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and mental disorders such as schizophrenia; and 2) to map brain functions and cerebrovascular reactivity for presurgical planning in patients with vascular malformations, brain tumors and epilepsy.